date tree pollination

Date Palm Pollination

What is pollination?

Pollination is one of the crucial stages in the production process of agricultural products, including date palm cultivation, and it is essential to improve the performance and operations of cultivation.

Date palm is one of the important agricultural products in tropical regions, which is widely used in many countries due to its high nutritional value and resistance to harsh weather conditions. However, to have a high yield in date production, attention must be paid to the issue of pollination.

In this article, we examine the date pollination process, factors affecting this process, and date pollination methods. By reading this article, you can learn about date palm pollination and its importance in date production.

What Is the Process of Pollination?

In plants such as dates, which are dioecious, male and female flowers are formed on separate bases, and to pollinate dates, pollen grains must be transferred from the male flower to the female flower.

Date palm pollination occurs during the flowering stage

The process of pollination in date trees, especially in Iran, can be briefly described as follows: Male date flowers produce pollen grains that are inside the carpel. On the other hand, female flowers have a sticky stigma that is surrounded by a protective sheath called a print and are highly fragrant, and this smell can be detected by insects such as bees and butterflies.

During pollination, pollen grains are transferred from the stamens of male flowers to the stigma of female flowers, usually with the help of wind or insects. This allows the male gametes to fertilize the female gametes, resulting in the formation of a fruit. Stamens and carpels are collectively known as the male and female parts of the flower, respectively.

Dates Pollination by Humans:

Dates are pollinated by humans in two different ways:

1. Traditional or Manual Methods:

The act of pollination in date palms is manual, especially in Iran. In this method, the male flower is separated and some of its flowers are placed upside down inside the inflorescence of the female flower.

To increase the probability of insemination, first, they shake the spikes on the female inflorescence so that the pollen falls on it, and after placing it on the female inflorescence, they close it tightly.

Another method of date palm pollination is that before the female palms are ready, the male flowers are separated from the palm and kept in suitable conditions, and after a few days, the pure pollen is mixed with flour or some other ingredients in specific proportions. they do. Then they put it in a thin cloth bag and shake the bag’s contents on the female flowers with a stick or other tools and repeat this several times to increase the probability of inoculation.

2. Modern Methods:

Modern pollination is another method that is carried out using various tools, including pollinators and drones, motorized and electric devices, and recently the use liquid suspension systems.  For this, we need dry pollen and we must make sure of the quality of the pollen.

Some of these methods have been proven to be very effective. However, some devices are not used due to their high cost, the need for operator skill, and equipment maintenance.

Commercial dates production requires artificial pollination, which ensures good fertilization and also reduces the number of male palms required.

date palm pollination

Effective Factors:

Various factors have an effect on date tree pollination, which can be effective in its positive process

  • Environmental factors

 The more the number of palm trees, the more chance of pollination

  • Environmental conditions

wind, light, humidity, and temperature can all play a role in regulating the activities of plants that are related to date pollination for instance:

  • The light

Light also helps the growth of date flowers and thus pollination of dates. Date palm trees require a lot of light and in low light conditions, fewer date flowers may be produced, resulting in a decrease in pollination.

  • Human Factors

Human factors can be effective in date palm pollination, for example, in the number and manner of planting palm trees

  • physical factors

Physical factors such as wind, humidity, and temperature can also be effective. For example, the wind can carry the pollen to other trees or distant areas, thus intensifying the pollination process. Also, the right temperature and humidity will increase the chance of pollination success.

  • Time factors

some date palm species only pollinate at certain times of the year, and otherwise, pollination will be less likely.

The most suitable time for pollination is 1 to 4 days after the opening of the female inflorescence.

The best time for pollination is from 10 am to 3 pm on a sunny day or a temperature of 21-32 degrees Celsius.

  • Genetic factors

Some palm species have special genes that are used for better and more effective pollination. Also, some species of dates are more resistant to diseases and adverse environmental conditions, and as a result, they will have more chances of pollination.

  • Chemical factors

the use of chemical fertilizers and different growth factors can affect the pollination process. Some diseases and pests can also affect the growth and pollination of date trees.

In this article, we investigated the date palm pollination process and its importance in date production Most farmers are looking for ways to improve pollination to increase the quality of date production.

 In other words, pollination can play an effective role in improving date production and increasing farmers’ profitability.


This article was compiled by the AriaFoods team.

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India date market

Indian Dates Market

Indian Date Market Statistics

Dates Imported in India

India is the first importer of dates. The amount of dates imported to this country is extraordinary. this makes the Indian dates market the biggest market in the world. In 2021, the import amount to India was 475,356 tons and the import value was $240,350. After that, Morocco and France are the second and third importers.

Since India has first place among the importer of dates, it is not a bad idea to take a quick look at this market. That’s why the AriaFoods R&D team collected numbers and statistics from FAO and ITS to analyze the Indian dates market. 

Analyzing the Statistics of Date Import in India According to Countries

  • The top five Date importing Countries based on imported value are shown in the graph below. in 2021, the value of imported dates in the world was 1,994,827.
  • And the ten countries from which India imports the most dates are also listed in the table. and Iran is the third country that exports dates to India
world dates market
India dates market

Analyzing the Statistics of Dates Import in India From Iran by Dates Type

India date market

In 2021 Iran  Exported 83,107 MTon Dates to India.

From this amount, Mazafati Dates have the highest quantity, and 47,961 Ton Mazafati dates were exported to India in 2021 after that Shahani with 14,291 has the second place and Kaluteh with 4,407 has the third place.  

Dates have a fair share of myths and religious connotations attached to them. For instance, in Hinduism, it is widely believed that dates symbolize prosperity, happiness, and love. Perhaps, that’s why they always get to share space with other sweets in a gift box. Christians and Muslims adore the fruit because of its religious significance to them. which we talked about that in the article “Dates in different religions“.

Indian Dates Market

Mazafati, Shahani, and Kaluthe have the most quantity exported to India. Which are classified into WET and SEMI-DRY categories. 

The highest amount is for January, which is the month before Ramadan. There are many reasons why the use of Dates increases during Ramadan. But as mentioned, it is not only Muslims who are fond of Dates.

Mazafati dates have the highest export sales among Iranian dates. This date is one of the most popular dates around the world, Low fat and high calorie due to the high amount of sugar and low sucrose, making mazafati dates special. Mazafati dates are known by many names, like black dates, BAM dates, and one of the most well-known names is KIMIA DATES. The main production of these dates is in the south and southeast of Iran such as Bam, Kahnooj, Jiroft, and the cities of Sistan and Baluchestan provinces such as Saravan and Iranshahr.

Due to the weather conditions, the harvest time of Mazafati dates is late August and early October. The amount of moisture depending on the harvest time and the area under cultivation is from 15% to 35%. This date is dark purple at harvest and turns black after production and storage.

mazafati dates need refrigerated containers for transportation. Since these dates categories in wet and semi-dry, they should be in a cold and dry place.

The graph below shows the amount of Mazafati Dates exported from Iran to India by month.

AriaFoods Packaging for Mazafati Dates

Indian Dates Market

600 gr Packaging

.Weight of master carton: 7- 6.5 kg
.Weight of master carton: 7.2 - 6.8 kg
Number of packages in the master carton: 12
Packed in cartons, IML, and plastic boxes

Indian Dates Market

5 kg Packaging

.Grade 1 Quality
.Grade 1.5 Quality
.Eco Quality
Packed in carton boxes

The export amount of Mazafati dates from Iran to India by month


Mazafati Dates

  • 1-Introductoin
  • 1-1 general information
  • 1-2 area under cultivation
  • 1-3 teritories of cultivation
  • 1-4 specification of product
  • 1-5 packing method
  • 2-Benefits
  • 2-1 organic products defenition
  • 2-2 nutrients features
  • 3-Market analizing
  • 3-1 top3 dates exporter countries
  • 3-2 destination markets of Mazafati dates
  • 3-3 conclusion

Not for advertising ! About Mazafati Dates

regarding to our customers opinions ,Mazafati dates is know as a unique dates with special taste around the world . Mazafati dates or Bam dates is the best type of Iranian dates in international of the most attractive features of this dates is that you can eat some of them for a meal time without any unpleasant feeling after your using.

Mazafati Dates

Mazafati dates has the most cultivated area among all kinds of Iranian dates and after Mazafati,Kabkab dates and sayer dates have the largest areas under cultivation .Mazafati gardens have more than 46,000,000 m^2 area cultivation around the Iran *.the main production of Mazafati dates is in south and southeast of Iran like Bam,Kahnoj,Jiroft,Saravan and Iranshahr.because Bam is a city that Mazafati dates is cultivating with the best quality and huge production ,traders call it BAM dates.

In agriculture ,Palm dates is one of the tallest trees of fruit that the height of this can be maximum 25 m .mazafati dates at the harvest time is dark purple and after production and storage processes it will tend to attractive dark black date and this dates has a skin that it can keep fresh the internal meat of dates. rate of moisture according to harvesting time and cultivating area is from 15% to 35% also the size of mazafati dates is from 3 to 5.4 cm due to the cultivating area and different grades of product.

Mazafati Dates

for keeping and exporting Mazafati dates product we designed some special packing from 250 gr to 10 kg .Ariafoods is trying to design packing suitable for the target markets.for more convenience of shipping we have some large box that we call it ‘‘Mother carton ‘‘.it can contain 12 pack of mazafati dates and approximate weigh of this packing betwwen 6.8-8.5 kg depends on the market’s trend.

Mazafati Dates
Mazafati Dates

Organic food products are grown under a system of agriculture without the use of harmful chemical fertilizers and pesticides with an environmentally and socially responsible approach and all of the steps for stengthen the soil,planting and harvesting is by natural material like natural fertilizers and composts.In this method growing plants take time to grow naturally and always good for health.

As you know all kind of dates are really useful for caring of health, most of the kind of dates are rich in nutrients A,B vitamins,iron, potassium and phosphorous that have many benefits for the health.Moreover fiber is especially nutrient of the Mazafati dates that fiber really influence for avoiding of constipation and excess acid in stomach.Keeping in cool store is a essential point for maintain of quality and health of the Mazafati dates.


Mazafati Dates

According to the reports of ITC*,international trade center, for the ‘‘fresh or dreied dates’’ that it has hscode 080410 ,Republic Islamic of Iran is the first exporter of dates with value of 338 million dollars in 2018 and after Iran,Tunisia and Saudi arabia have the most exports of dates around the world.

however these information is refers to all kinds of dates,after studing ICCIMA*,Iran chamber of commerce,industries,mine and agriculture, on the Mazafati dates’s trade data as the most export Iranian dates ,we present an circular diagram for general description about target markets of Mazafati dates.