date tree pollination

Date Palm Pollination

What is pollination?

Pollination is one of the crucial stages in the production process of agricultural products, including date palm cultivation, and it is essential to improve the performance and operations of cultivation.

Date palm is one of the important agricultural products in tropical regions, which is widely used in many countries due to its high nutritional value and resistance to harsh weather conditions. However, to have a high yield in date production, attention must be paid to the issue of pollination.

In this article, we examine the date pollination process, factors affecting this process, and date pollination methods. By reading this article, you can learn about date palm pollination and its importance in date production.

What Is the Process of Pollination?

In plants such as dates, which are dioecious, male and female flowers are formed on separate bases, and to pollinate dates, pollen grains must be transferred from the male flower to the female flower.

Date palm pollination occurs during the flowering stage

The process of pollination in date trees, especially in Iran, can be briefly described as follows: Male date flowers produce pollen grains that are inside the carpel. On the other hand, female flowers have a sticky stigma that is surrounded by a protective sheath called a print and are highly fragrant, and this smell can be detected by insects such as bees and butterflies.

During pollination, pollen grains are transferred from the stamens of male flowers to the stigma of female flowers, usually with the help of wind or insects. This allows the male gametes to fertilize the female gametes, resulting in the formation of a fruit. Stamens and carpels are collectively known as the male and female parts of the flower, respectively.

Dates Pollination by Humans:

Dates are pollinated by humans in two different ways:

1. Traditional or Manual Methods:

The act of pollination in date palms is manual, especially in Iran. In this method, the male flower is separated and some of its flowers are placed upside down inside the inflorescence of the female flower.

To increase the probability of insemination, first, they shake the spikes on the female inflorescence so that the pollen falls on it, and after placing it on the female inflorescence, they close it tightly.

Another method of date palm pollination is that before the female palms are ready, the male flowers are separated from the palm and kept in suitable conditions, and after a few days, the pure pollen is mixed with flour or some other ingredients in specific proportions. they do. Then they put it in a thin cloth bag and shake the bag’s contents on the female flowers with a stick or other tools and repeat this several times to increase the probability of inoculation.

2. Modern Methods:

Modern pollination is another method that is carried out using various tools, including pollinators and drones, motorized and electric devices, and recently the use liquid suspension systems.  For this, we need dry pollen and we must make sure of the quality of the pollen.

Some of these methods have been proven to be very effective. However, some devices are not used due to their high cost, the need for operator skill, and equipment maintenance.

Commercial dates production requires artificial pollination, which ensures good fertilization and also reduces the number of male palms required.

date palm pollination

Effective Factors:

Various factors have an effect on date tree pollination, which can be effective in its positive process

  • Environmental factors

 The more the number of palm trees, the more chance of pollination

  • Environmental conditions

wind, light, humidity, and temperature can all play a role in regulating the activities of plants that are related to date pollination for instance:

  • The light

Light also helps the growth of date flowers and thus pollination of dates. Date palm trees require a lot of light and in low light conditions, fewer date flowers may be produced, resulting in a decrease in pollination.

  • Human Factors

Human factors can be effective in date palm pollination, for example, in the number and manner of planting palm trees

  • physical factors

Physical factors such as wind, humidity, and temperature can also be effective. For example, the wind can carry the pollen to other trees or distant areas, thus intensifying the pollination process. Also, the right temperature and humidity will increase the chance of pollination success.

  • Time factors

some date palm species only pollinate at certain times of the year, and otherwise, pollination will be less likely.

The most suitable time for pollination is 1 to 4 days after the opening of the female inflorescence.

The best time for pollination is from 10 am to 3 pm on a sunny day or a temperature of 21-32 degrees Celsius.

  • Genetic factors

Some palm species have special genes that are used for better and more effective pollination. Also, some species of dates are more resistant to diseases and adverse environmental conditions, and as a result, they will have more chances of pollination.

  • Chemical factors

the use of chemical fertilizers and different growth factors can affect the pollination process. Some diseases and pests can also affect the growth and pollination of date trees.

In this article, we investigated the date palm pollination process and its importance in date production Most farmers are looking for ways to improve pollination to increase the quality of date production.

 In other words, pollination can play an effective role in improving date production and increasing farmers’ profitability.


This article was compiled by the AriaFoods team.

Be in touch with us


Indian date market

Indian Dates Market

Indian Date Market Statistics

Dates Imported in India

India is the first importer of dates. The amount of dates imported to this country is extraordinary. this makes the Indian dates market the biggest market in the world. In 2021, the import amount to India was 475,356 tons and the import value was $240,350. After that, Morocco and France are the second and third importers.

Since India has first place among the importer of dates, it is not a bad idea to take a quick look at this market. That’s why the AriaFoods R&D team collected numbers and statistics from FAO and ITS to analyze the Indian dates market. 

Analyzing the Statistics of Date Import in India According to Countries

  • The top five Date importing Countries based on imported value are shown in the graph below. in 2021, the value of imported dates in the world was 1,994,827.
  • And the ten countries from which India imports the most dates are also listed in the table. and Iran is the third country that exports dates to India
world dates market
Indian Dates Market

Analyzing the Statistics of Dates Import in India From Iran by Dates Type

India date market

In 2021 Iran  Exported 83,107 MTon Dates to India.

From this amount, Mazafati Dates have the highest quantity, and 47,961 Ton Mazafati dates were exported to India in 2021 after that Shahani with 14,291 has the second place and Kaluteh with 4,407 has the third place.  

Dates have a fair share of myths and religious connotations attached to them. For instance, in Hinduism, it is widely believed that dates symbolize prosperity, happiness, and love. Perhaps, that’s why they always get to share space with other sweets in a gift box. Christians and Muslims adore the fruit because of its religious significance to them. which we talked about that in the article “Dates in different religions“.

Indian Dates Market

Mazafati, Shahani, and Kaluthe have the most quantity exported to India. Which are classified into WET and SEMI-DRY categories. 

The highest amount is for January, which is the month before Ramadan. There are many reasons why the use of Dates increases during Ramadan. But as mentioned, it is not only Muslims who are fond of Dates.

Mazafati dates have the highest export sales among Iranian dates. This date is one of the most popular dates around the world, Low fat and high calorie due to the high amount of sugar and low sucrose, making mazafati dates special. Mazafati dates are known by many names, like black dates, BAM dates, and one of the most well-known names is KIMIA DATES. The main production of these dates is in the south and southeast of Iran such as Bam, Kahnooj, Jiroft, and the cities of Sistan and Baluchestan provinces such as Saravan and Iranshahr.

Due to the weather conditions, the harvest time of Mazafati dates is late August and early October. The amount of moisture depending on the harvest time and the area under cultivation is from 15% to 35%. This date is dark purple at harvest and turns black after production and storage.

mazafati dates need refrigerated containers for transportation. Since these dates categories in wet and semi-dry, they should be in a cold and dry place.

The graph below shows the amount of Mazafati Dates exported from Iran to India by month.

AriaFoods Packaging for Mazafati Dates

Indian Dates Market

600 gr Packaging

.Weight of master carton: 7- 6.5 kg
.Weight of master carton: 7.2 - 6.8 kg
Number of packages in the master carton: 12
Packed in cartons, IML, and plastic boxes

Indian Dates Market

5 kg Packaging

.Grade 1 Quality
.Grade 1.5 Quality
.Eco Quality
Packed in carton boxes

The export amount of Mazafati dates from Iran to India by month


10 facts about dates

Dates grow on a large tree called the palm and have been used for thousands of years in most indigenous foods of the Middle East, North Africa, Central Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia.

There are about one million types of dates in worldwide, and depending on the type, dates may be harvested soft, dry or semi-dry.

Because dates are low in moisture among other fruits, they can be stored for a long time.

Dates have become very popular in recent years because they are rich in nutrients.

Dates are a wonderful fruit of nature that the more you know about it, the more you will become interested in. That’s why we decided to share some of the most interesting facts about dates with you.

Fact number 1

One fact about dates is that they are the oldest fruits grown in the world, and the fossils that exist shows that dates existed about 50 million years ago.

Fact number 2

An adult palm tree can produce 200 to 300 pounds or up to 10,000 dates in a single season! This is a lot of dates! You can harvest dates several times during the season, which means at least 1000 dates each time.

Fact number 3

Date palms cover 3% of the cultivated area. And about four million tons of dates are grown annually in the world.

Fact number 4

Another interesting fact about dates is that date palms grow 21 to 23 meters or 69 to 75 feet high and 30 feet around.

Fact number 5

Due to its tropical beauty, date palm has been a popular garden plant in several Roman-style gardens. Due to the temperate climate in Italy, they were not able to harvest dates to eat, so they were mostly planted for appearance.

Fact number 6

In ancient Rome, palms were used in victory marches as a symbol of victory.

Fact number 7

You may be interested to know that the date fruit is derived from the Greek word “finger”, dáktulos, due to its long, finger-like shape, the English name (derived from Old French) and the Latin name.

Fact number 8

Due to their availability, people used dates for long boat trips, crossing deserts and even storing them in castles; People also used dates to survive the siege. (Properly stored date fruits can last for many years).

Fact number 9

Another interesting fact about dates is that an adult can survive by eating only 15 date fruits a day. By using dates, your body receives all the minerals and vitamins it needs for its existence. Isn’t it wonderful?!

Fact number 10

Due to the popularity of dates around the world, people are very interested in using date syrup, which is made from chopped dates. Date syrup is a good source of vitamins and minerals. And it has a lot of iron, potassium, copper, manganese and magnesium, which is a substitute for unhealthy sugar. Date syrup is a good complement to raw cake and is also very tasty with plain yogurt, fresh cheese, vanilla ice cream and smoothie.

These are just a few facts about dates, this unique fruit. If you think we have left something out, you can share it with us.

If your interest in dates has increased a little, you can find out more about this amazing fruit just by ordering a box of your own.

AriaFoods with the best cultivated dates guarantees that you have the best and most delicious dates …

Use of dates in the industry

Use of dates in the industry

Use of dates in the industry

The reason why we should date instead of other sweeteners

Excessive daily consumption of sugar around the world has caused various diseases in human societies. But since it is not possible to eliminate sweets and sweet foods from the diet, consumers tend to use more products with natural sweeteners and that is the reason that the use of dates in the industry has been increased day by day. As a result, food industry owners are trying to use natural sugars to reduce their sugar intake. (That is why dates are so popular).  They are sweet, healthy, and rich in nutrients, and can be consumed in different ways.  Dates are the sweet and savory fruit of the palm tree. The history of the existence of the date is back to seven thousand years BC. Historians believe that their origin is Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, or Mesopotamia. However, its exact location is unknown. The palm tree has a high value in hot and dry areas and is called the “tree of life”. Palms are very resistant to dehydration and hot weather, and some believe that life in these areas is impossible without them. The wide use of dates in the industry is because dates are high in nutritional value and sugar (about 70%).

Different use of dates in the industry

Dates have many uses in the industry, including date syrup, dates liquid sugar, chopped dates, date chocolate chips, dates paste, dates powder, dates nectar (date honey), dates vinegar, alcohol, beverage extract, dates cloves, dates halva, chocolate dates, solid chocolate dates, sauces, pickles, compotes, marmalades, jams, and animal food. Dates play a key role as food in times of crisis such as floods, earthquakes, wars, and droughts, and are also the staple food of the poor in disadvantaged areas, especially in Third World countries, which face problems caused by malnutrition and hunger. In addition to the above, dates are one of the few plant species that have been able to expand human communities in hot and humid environments due to their unique characteristics such as drought and water resistance, poor water and soil tolerance. 

Consumption of all components of the palm tree

Palm: Apart from the fruit of the palm tree, there are other components that can be used in industry for different purposes. The leaves and branches of the tree can be used to produce baskets and various textured items, mats and bags, and small decorative items. Kernels: we can tack activated carbon oil, lauryl alcohol, palm kernel ointment (for eyelash growth) from dates kernels, and its waste can be used in livestock and poultry feed. And sometimes it is used for camel food by soaking date kernels. Some people also roast date kernels and make coffee from them – a delicious and excellent coffee. Also, only half of the dates produced are used for human consumption and the food industry, and the other half is primarily used for animal food or in biotechnology. These people have been able to find ways to use surplus dates as raw materials to produce value-added products such as medical and industrial ethanol, baker’s yeast, single-cell protein as fodder yeast, citric acid, and date-flavored probiotic fermented dairy products, And so on. 

Dates for Breakfast

Dates for Breakfast

Use date for breakfast

In this article, we want to explain what eating dates for breakfast have to do with your body health, and this is kind of important since people around the world From Australia to Venezuela, from Canada to India and any other place, in each morning wakes up and eating a meal known as breakfast. Imagine every person eats breakfast at any time of day after waking up before starting the day, and engaging in daily activities. This meal can sometimes be summed up in a cup of coffee, but sometimes it can be tasted as much as any other meal in a luxury restaurant. The food used for breakfast may be different in each house and in each region, because of the culture and food available in that area, but there are a number of foods that can be boldly said that all the people around the world enjoy eating it for breakfast. Such as cup of coffee or tea, a glass of fruit juice or a slice of cake, eating bread, eggs, a variety of fruits, a variety of dairy products such as milk, cheese or butter, or even fresh smoothies are all things that It is common among the people of the world for breakfast.

Benefits of using dates for breakfast

one of the foods that You can feel its vacancy in the list above is eating dates for breakfast. Dates are known among the people of the Middle East, Asia and Africa and are used as a staple food in some countries. Dates grow in the tropics and have many nutrients for the body. Now imagine that you do not have enough time one day to prepare and crave a complete meal for breakfast, and also you don’t have the ingredients to prepare a breakfast that can provide what your body needs throughout the day until lunch; we want to offer you a solution. Imagine having dates in your home and a few other things that can be found in every home, you will be able to prepare a nutritious breakfast for yourself in a short time that can provide you the energy of a cup of coffee and the nutrients of a fruits and dairy products.

Date Nutrition

Dates contain vitamins A and B, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and many other nutrients that provide energy during the day. The nutrients in dates make them easy to digest and eliminate digestive problems, they are good for anemia and are also known as an anti-cancer agent. Dates increase energy, so if you are interested in exercising before or after breakfast, I can promise you that by consuming dates for breakfast, your energy will be so high that you can use it for a few days.

Our delicious recipe

To prepare this delicious breakfast, you need the following things:
  • 2 medium frozen bananas
  • 3 tablespoons coco powder
  • 1/4 cup Mazafati date without kernels
  • 3/4 cup Greek yogurt
  • 1/2 cup coconut milk drink
  • 2 tablespoons peanut butter
  • 1 cup ice cubes
Add the frozen bananas to the mixer along with the cocoa powder, chopped dates, yogurt, coconut milk, peanut butter and ice cubes. Stir until smooth (about 30 to 40 seconds). Pour the mixture into 2 tall glasses and serve immediately. In many healthy recipes, dates can be used as a natural sweetener, such as cookies and shakes. What is important is that you want something that balances the natural sugar of the human body so that you do not increase your blood sugar by yourself. Eating some natural peanut butter and dates for breakfast can also help your body slow down the absorption of sugar.
Dates for Breakfast

Kimia dates

Kimia dates (Mazafati)

Mazafati dates are known in the world by many names such as black dates, bam or bami; Of course, the most common name for Mazafati dates in the world is Kimia dates.

Kimia (Mazafati) dates have the highest sales among fresh and soft dates in the markets of Iran and of course the world.

The date extraordinary benefits, deliciousness, use in different dishes, etc. has made this date popular with people.

This date is the most well-known type of date in Iran, the main cultivation area of this date is in Kerman and Sistan Va Balouchstan provinces.

How to distinguish good Kimia dates from bad ones?

Customers often have one important question; how can I recognize a good date from a bad one.

In the case of Kimia dates, it’s really important to know if our date is really a Kimia date s or not.

It is easy to identify original Kimia (mazafati) Dates. Original Kimia dates are either deep brown or black in color.

They are so soft that they can get squished when held firmly between the thumb and index finger. They get sticky when they are squished.

kimia dates

Why is Mazafati date known as Kimia date?

There are absolutely no differences between mazafati dates and Kimia dates, and they just known only by different names around the world.

Many years ago, mazafati dates were exported to India by the brand name of kimia. This brand has exported a large amount of mazafati dates to India by this name that mazafati dates in India were known as kimia dates, among people especially the importers and traders. After that this name has been expansion so much that even now the Indian know this date by the name of kimia dates.

Due to its specific climatic conditions, India can’t cultivate dates. On the other hand, the high-quality dates that are produced in Iran have been able to attract Indian attention to themselves.

Among the dates produced in Iran, Kimia (Mazafati) dates are very popular and for this reason, its production is supported a lot.

This date is very popular not only in India but also in the world because of its special and natural taste.

This date not just in India, but around the world is really famous because of its delicious and nature test.

The greatest purchaser of this date is in India. The Indians annually imports this date in large tonnages to their country through the airway, seaway, which most of it is transport by sea.

Dates in different religions

Dates in different religions

There is special attention to Dates in different religions, In the Holy books of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, people have been paid lots of attention to the palm tree and dates fruit.

The palm tree does not produce anything useless and everything that the palm tree has, can be used, such as its fruit, syrup, oil, leaves, and more.

The palm tree is also very valuable because of its leaves and can be used to make baskets and various tools, as well as its leaves, which can be used for the roof. The trunk of this tree was also used in construction in ancient times.

And also in date palm, it’s not just the fruit that’s edible – it was once routine to grind date kernels and mix them with flour to craft special bread or use the kernels as feed for camels and horses.

Palm and Dates in different religions:

Palm and date tree in Islam:

As palm trees spread throughout the Middle East and then to other dried climates around the world, they began to find spiritual meaning.

Dates are mentioned about 20 times in the Holy Quran and more than 50 times in the Christian Bible.

The palm tree and its fruit are known as a symbol of faith and power in Islam. The palm tree is also known for its other functions such as use in clothing and design.

While the proverb “one apple a day keeps the doctor away” is well-known in most parts of the world, the Muslim equivalent is “seven dates a day keeps the doctor away.” The Prophet of Islam argued that seven dates in the morning protect a person from toxins. This gives dates a mystical and almost supernatural quality.

As we said before Dates are mentioned about 20 times in the Qur’an. Dates are a symbol of wealth, victory, faith, power, and abundance and have a special place in Islamic history and culture. In fact, Muslims consider the date palm and its fruit sacred. In Arabic, the word date is called “nahle” and its fruit is called “Tamr”. And in Turkish, the word date is “Hurma”, because in Arabic it means “respect”. Dates have a very special place in Turkish culture as it is easy to understand their importance from the name.

The name of dates is repeated in the Qur’an more than any other fruit. In Islam, dates are the main food for the moment of Iftar in the holy month of Ramadan.

Ramadan is a very popular time to eat dates because the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “When one of you breaks his fast, let him break it with dates for they are blessed” …

The date palm has long been a symbol of prosperity in the Arab world. Even today, visitors to the Middle East are greeted with fresh dates as a warm welcome.

Palm Tree in Christianity:

In Christianity, the leaves of the palm tree are used in “Palm Sunday”; Sunday Palm is a holiday celebrated by Christians and Jews and is rooted in the blessing and strategic placement of the palm branch, while in ancient Greece the tree was the symbol of Apollo and was born under the palm tree on the island of Delos.

The palm tree and its fruit are also mentioned in the birth of Jesus Christ and it is described that during the birth of the Prophet Mary leans on the palm tree and hears a voice instructing her to shake the tree so that she can cut the fruit to reduce labor pain (this story is mentioned in the Qur’an).

Palm trees in Judaism:

Apart from Islam, dates are used in Judaism ceremonies at religious festivals, and people hold them in their hands as a sign of victory.

Jews also use palm leaves as a hinge for the Jewish holiday of Sukkot.

Palm trees in other religions:

Apart from Islam, Christianity and Judaism, Hindus also use dried dates on their special religious days.


Mazafati Dates

  • 1-Introductoin
  • 1-1 general information
  • 1-2 area under cultivation
  • 1-3 teritories of cultivation
  • 1-4 specification of product
  • 1-5 packing method
  • 2-Benefits
  • 2-1 organic products defenition
  • 2-2 nutrients features
  • 3-Market analizing
  • 3-1 top3 dates exporter countries
  • 3-2 destination markets of Mazafati dates
  • 3-3 conclusion

Not for advertising ! About Mazafati Dates

regarding to our customers opinions ,Mazafati dates is know as a unique dates with special taste around the world . Mazafati dates or Bam dates is the best type of Iranian dates in international of the most attractive features of this dates is that you can eat some of them for a meal time without any unpleasant feeling after your using.

Mazafati Dates

Mazafati dates has the most cultivated area among all kinds of Iranian dates and after Mazafati,Kabkab dates and sayer dates have the largest areas under cultivation .Mazafati gardens have more than 46,000,000 m^2 area cultivation around the Iran *.the main production of Mazafati dates is in south and southeast of Iran like Bam,Kahnoj,Jiroft,Saravan and Iranshahr.because Bam is a city that Mazafati dates is cultivating with the best quality and huge production ,traders call it BAM dates.

In agriculture ,Palm dates is one of the tallest trees of fruit that the height of this can be maximum 25 m .mazafati dates at the harvest time is dark purple and after production and storage processes it will tend to attractive dark black date and this dates has a skin that it can keep fresh the internal meat of dates. rate of moisture according to harvesting time and cultivating area is from 15% to 35% also the size of mazafati dates is from 3 to 5.4 cm due to the cultivating area and different grades of product.


for keeping and exporting Mazafati dates product we designed some special packing from 250 gr to 10 kg .Ariafoods is trying to design packing suitable for the target markets.for more convenience of shipping we have some large box that we call it ‘‘Mother carton ‘‘.it can contain 12 pack of mazafati dates and approximate weigh of this packing betwwen 6.8-8.5 kg depends on the market’s trend.

Mazafati Dates
Mazafati Dates

Organic food products are grown under a system of agriculture without the use of harmful chemical fertilizers and pesticides with an environmentally and socially responsible approach and all of the steps for stengthen the soil,planting and harvesting is by natural material like natural fertilizers and composts.In this method growing plants take time to grow naturally and always good for health.

As you know all kind of dates are really useful for caring of health, most of the kind of dates are rich in nutrients A,B vitamins,iron, potassium and phosphorous that have many benefits for the health.Moreover fiber is especially nutrient of the Mazafati dates that fiber really influence for avoiding of constipation and excess acid in stomach.Keeping in cool store is a essential point for maintain of quality and health of the Mazafati dates.


Mazafati Dates

According to the reports of ITC*,international trade center, for the ‘‘fresh or dreied dates’’ that it has hscode 080410 ,Republic Islamic of Iran is the first exporter of dates with value of 338 million dollars in 2018 and after Iran,Tunisia and Saudi arabia have the most exports of dates around the world.

however these information is refers to all kinds of dates,after studing ICCIMA*,Iran chamber of commerce,industries,mine and agriculture, on the Mazafati dates’s trade data as the most export Iranian dates ,we present an circular diagram for general description about target markets of Mazafati dates.